Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. The links below will take you to a site where you can compare prices at booksellers across the web. A diplomat by the reign of Justinian II (r. 685-695 CE), he had assisted the emperor in regaining his throne in 705 CE  after working his way up the ranks of the army. Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne’s position by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor. After the people had seen four emperors in six years, Leo would finally provide the empire with some stability. He became the pope in 795 AD and died in 816 AD. When Leo died in his sleep in 741 CE - a rare luxury for a Byzantine emperor - Constantine took his rightful place, and he would reign as Constantine V until 775 CE. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. In 1886, Pope Leo XIII decreed that this prayer to St. Michael be said at the end of "low" Mass (not "high", or sung Masses) throughout the universal Church, along with the Salve Regina (Hail, Holy Queen); and the practice of the congregation praying these prayers at the end of Mass continued until about 1970, with the introduction of the new rite of the Mass. He died in 816. https://www.ancient.eu/Leo_III/. Index by Profession, Achievement, or Role in Society, Melissa Snell is a historical researcher and writer specializing in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Leo III was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 717 to 741 CE. He rescued the empire from disaster and began the containment of the Arabs' eastern advance. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Below are some example laws relating to personal relationships from the new code: Other legal reforms included making divorce more difficult, protecting the rights and property of married women, outlining an impressive list of sexual crimes and generally incorporating a strong influence from Christianity. Leo III & Constantine Vby Testus (CC BY-SA). The minimum standards Leo demanded for workers… Byzantine Iconoclasmby Unknown Artist (Public Domain). Leo III of Rome was the Archbishop and Pope of the Church of Rome from 795 to 816. Protected by Charlemagne from the supporters of his predecessor, Adrian I, Leo subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him emperor. Leo III, byname Leo The Isaurian, (born c. 675, –680, Germanicia, Commagene, Syria—died June 18, 741, Constantinople), Byzantine emperor (717–741), who founded the Isaurian, or Syrian, dynasty, successfully resisted Arab invasions, and engendered a century of conflict within the empire by banning the use of religious images (icons).. Military accomplishments. The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages. He also initiated the controversial Iconoclastic movement. Life. Paul III, Italian noble who was the last of the Renaissance popes (reigned 1534–49) and the first pope of the Counter-Reformation. Indeed, one reason why the Church and nobles of the empire so readily accepted Leo as their new emperor may well have been due to the imminent threat to the capital. He had to get back in to Rome, into the Vatican. Early life. Pope. Key Points. 12 June 816) was Pope and ruler of the Papal States from 26 December 795 to his death in 816. The letter was part of his attempt to halt the drift of working people and industrial labor away from his Church. He came to the papal throne in an era following the sack of Rome in 1527 and rife with uncertainties in the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation. Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor and "Augustus of the Romans". Leo reported his election to Charlemagne, sent him the keys of Saint Peter's tomb and the banner of Rome.Charlemagne replied that it was his function to defend the church and the Pope's to pray for the kingdom and for victory of the army.. Charlemagne went to Rome in November 800, and on December 1 held a council there with representatives of both sides. The popes were none too pleased either that a former shepherd was now deciding Church dogma. What did this indicate about the Catholic Church? He continued his father’s military successes, notably against the Bulgars in the Balkans and the Arabs in Syria and Armenia. Pope Leo III. It indicated that the pope had more power than monarchs. The saving of the city was commemorated each year, thereafter - Byzantium and the most important Christian city outside Jerusalem could breathe a huge sigh of relief. Answer to: Why is Pope Leo III important to history? By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. Pope Leo III. He made Rome a cultural centre and a political power, but he depleted the papal treasury, and, by failing to take the developing Reformation seriously, he contributed to the dissolution of the Western church. asked Jul 9, 2016 in Art & Culture by Face_Off. Leo III (ca. Leo III was born in Italy around 750 and died at the age of 66 in 816 after serving as Pope for a … Pope Leo was chased out of Rome fleeing for his life. Leo III, Byzantine emperor (717–741), who founded the Isaurian, or Syrian, dynasty, successfully resisted Arab invasions, and engendered a century of conflict within the empire by banning the use of religious images (icons). Thank you! The husband who is cognizant of, and condones, his wife’s adultery shall be flogged and exiled, and the adulterer and the adulteress shall have their noses slit. Answer and Explanation: Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Leo … crowning Charlemagne Emperor and establishing the precedent that only the pope could confer the imperial crown. read more. Some historians believe that Charlemagne was surprised by the coronation and would not have gone into the church that day had he known the pope’s plan. Cartwright, Mark. The coronation was not approved in Constantinople, although the Byzantines, occupied with their own defenses, were in no position to offer much opposition. Pope Leo III (Latin: Leo; fl. A keen and able administrator, Leo was fully aware that his own path to the throne might well be followed by another ambitious strategos, and so he divided some of the Empire’s bigger themes into smaller units and centralised government in general to reduce the power base of the military governors. 12 June 816) was the bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from 26 December 795 to his death. Last modified December 04, 2017. Alternatively, there may have been a belief that the terrible losses to the Muslim armies of the Arab Caliphate prior to Leo's reign were because God was displeased to see his image plastered on the walls of his churches and elsewhere. Birthplace: Rome, Italy Location of death: Rome, Italy Cause of death: unspecified. Discover free flashcards, games, and test prep activities designed to help you learn about Pope Leo Iii and other concepts. Pope Leo Iii. Read more on Wikipedia . Leo pressed on regardless and used the debate as an excuse to withdraw the ecclesiastical administration of Sicily, Calabria, and Illyricum (in the Balkans) away from papal authority to that of the Patriarch of Constantinople. Cartwright, M. (2017, December 04). Leo was also physically attacked in the streets of Rome by supporters of his predeccessor. One of the changes was to replace the practice of punishing many crimes with the death penalty for mutilations such as cutting off the nose, blinding, and removing a hand or the tongue. People who protested on the spot against the destruction of images at sacred sites were imprisoned, but iconophiles were not pursued individually - yet. So Pope Leo III started in Rome, where the Vatican (the home of the Pope) was. He started passing laws and issuing decrees taking away the power from the nobles of Rome and giving them back to the church. Elected pope: Dec. 26, 795Attacked: April 25, 799Died: June 12, 816. The Church wanted to … Attacking the Arabs in western and southern Asia Minor, he won several battles, notably at Nicaea in 726 CE. Leo's Early Years Leo was the son of Atyuppius and Elizabeth. In part a rather dramatic departure from traditional policies of the Vatican and the Roman Catholic Church's outlook, the letter vindicated for workers and poor people the rights which never before had received such papal or ecclesiastical sanction. Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Holy Roman emperor. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The king appears to have induced the pope to suspend him from the exercise of his episcopal functions, and to keep the kingdom under a kind of interdict for a period of six years. Leo III. Attacked in the streets of Rome by supporters of his predecessor's nephew, Leo sought the aid of Charlemagne and eventually crowned him emperor, establishing an important precedent. By the reign of Anastasios II (713-716 CE) Leo was the governor (strategos) of the military province (theme) of Anatolikon in central Asia Minor and, as such, had real political power. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Leo’s body was later placed in a tomb along with the remains of Leo I, Leo II, and Leo IV, though the remains of Leo I were later removed to a tomb of his own. Instead of the usual Latin, the new laws were written in the wider-known Greek language to help their practical application in everyday life by judges, governors, and lawyers across the empire; the Ecloga was also translated into the Armenian and Slavic languages, amongst others. A riot of protestors broke out, and rumblings of discontent could be heard everywhere from Ravenna to Greece. It was the beginning of a messy, bitter, and irreconcilable split in the western and eastern Churches, not to mention one of the greatest assaults in history on art and religious relics. Pope Leo had to swallow his pride. This caused the nobles of Rome to revolt. 12 June 816) was the bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from 26 December 795 to his death. This caused the nobles of Rome to revolt. For more about Leo, visit your Guide's Concise Biography of Pope Leo III. Concise Biography of Pope Leo IIIImage of Leo crowning Charlemagne. Charlemagne replied that it was his function to defend the church and the Pope's to pray for the kingdomand for victory of the army. 680-741), called the Isaurian, was Byzantine emperor from 717 to 741. Pope Leo III : biography – 12 June 0816 Pope Leo III (; 750 – 12 June 816) was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 795 to his death in 816. Pope Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was Pope and ruler of the Papal States from 26 December 795 to his death in 816. It established the Church as a political force. Then, in 740 CE, the decisive blow came, and the Byzantine army won a great victory at the battle of Akroinon in Phrygia which forced the Arabs to withdraw from the region. Roman Catholic Pope, 795-816. Pope Leo XIII (Italian: Leone XIII; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was the head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death in 1903. She authored the forward for "The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Crusades. The popes had long been in favour of the use of icons in holy places and so it came as no surprise that Pope Gregory II protested about the policy, and his successor Gregory III, too, but without any effect. Part of a vassal's obligation under his feudal contract was to serve in the military. The Popes During the... A Manual of Roman Law the Ecloga Published by the Emperors Leo III and... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The siege began in August 717 CE, conducted by an Arab army of 80,000 men and a fleet of 1,800 ships. Leo III, whose pontificate (795-816) covered the last eighteen years of the reign of Charlemagne, was a native of Rome, and having been chosen successor of Pope Adrian I on the 26th of December 795, was consecrated to the office on the following day. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Pope Leo is most noted for protecting Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome and crowning him Holy Roman Emperor as well as “Augustus of Rome.” Leo was born into a modest family in the countryside around Rome. He was the Pope, the head of … He started passing laws and issuing decrees taking away the power from the nobles of Rome and giving them back to the church. In 717 CE Leo joined forces with his fellow strategos Artabasdos, who governed Armeniakon in northeast Asia Minor. It would last a year, but the city, protected by its formidable fortifications and the secret incendiary weapon of Greek Fire, withstood the onslaught. ", ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. 0 0. Regarding other legal affairs, in 726 CE (or possibly 741 CE) Leo introduced a new manual on Byzantine laws called the Ecloga; replacing and updating the old and often contradictory Justinian code of 529 CE, its laws would not be superceded for another 150 years. In 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne the Emperor of the Romans, thereby extending Charlemagne’s power and authority. As pope, Leo was adept in diplomacy and managed to keep his Carolingian allies from exerting any real influence on matters of doctrine. b. Charlemagne could build a tremendous military force, because he had influence with the pope. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Related Content Very little is known of the real causes of the misunderstandings between them, but, whoever was the more to blame, the archbishop seems to have had the more to suffer. On December 23, Leo swore an oath of innocence. Pope. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Leo_III/. A Brief History. The Byzantine emperor sent a task force to Rome with the express purpose of arresting the Pope (it never got there, floundering in a storm), and the Pope responded by proclaiming anyone destroying icons would be excommunicated. The latter was promised the title of curopalates, one of the three highest ranks in the empire if Leo’s bid for ultimate power was successful. The idea that the Christian worship of religious images is idolatrous goes back to the Old Testament but over the centuries icons (that is images of holy persons: Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary and saints) had become a normal feature of many churches. Leo III. Leo III was the first ruler to involve himself in the debate, and he supported iconoclasm, that is the “breaking of images.” Quite what motivated Leo besides personal conviction is unclear. Consecrated on September 29, 440, as successor to St. Sixtus III, Leo, one of the few popes termed great, immediately worked to suppress heresy, which he regarded as the cause of corruption and disunity. No, Leo II was pope in the years 682 and 683. a. The emperor was a talented administrator, and he revamped the empire’s political apparatus and legal code. Unlike many of the Cardinals and those who entered papacy, he was not a member of the nobility. 680-741), called the Isaurian, was Byzantine emperor from 717 to 741. He also initiated the controversial Iconoclastic movement. A married man who commits adultery shall by way of correction be flogged with twelve lashes; and whether rich or poor he shall pay a fine. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Leo began his campaign of smashing icons with the biggest of them all, insisting that the golden image of Jesus Christ above the ceremonial entrance of his own royal palace, the Chalke, be removed. Leo reported his election to Charlemagne, sent him the keys of Saint Peter's tomband the banner of Rome. In 721 CE coinage was improved by the addition of the silver miliaresion, worth one-twelfth of a gold nomisma (solidus). His first act was to send to Charles as patrician the standard of Rome along with the keys of the sepulchre of St. Peter and of the city; a gracious and … The new emperor was not, then, from Isauria (southern Asia Minor) but the later chronicler Theophanes the Confessor (d. c. 818 CE) described him as such, and the name has stuck for his dynasty, the Isaurian, which included three more emperors and one empress, lasting until 802 CE. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. The exact motivations are lost in the mists of time, but the consequences would resound for centuries. Very little is known of the real causes of the misunderstandings between them, but, whoever was the more to blame, ... Leo III was buried in St. Peter's (12 June, 816), where his relics are to be found along with those of Sts. At Mass, on Christmas Day (December 25), when Charlemagne knelt at the altar to pray, the pope crowned him Imperator Romanorum(“Emperor of the Romans”) in Saint Peter’s Basilica. As with most persecutions, the effect was to drive iconophiles underground and to continue their veneration in secret, although, Leo seems largely to have concentrated his efforts on destroying the images themselves rather than the people who venerated them. Cite This Work Pope Leo III proclaimed Charlemagne to be Emperor of the Romans because Charlemagne had crushed a rebellion in Rome. Gender: Male Religion: Roman Catholic Race or. Pope Leo III ( ; 750 – 12 June 816) was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 795 to his death in 816. Leo X, one of the leading Renaissance popes (reigned 1513–21). Monasteries (which produced the icons), several bishops, and a great many ordinary Christians still wished to venerate their images, though, and a great rift in the Byzantine Church was opened which would only partially close towards the end of the 8th century CE and return again in 9th century CE. This ceremony was the beginning of what would become known as the Holy Roman Empire. "Leo III." Anti-corruption measures were taken such as the introduction of salaries for judges to make them less liable to take bribes. The Crusades did not kick off until the year 1090. Leo III. Leo was also physically attacked in the streets of Rome by supporters of his predeccessor. In so doin… These popes often jockeyed for authority with kings and emperors, sometimes succeeding in expanding their power and sometimes failing. Facing and defeating a small army of the emperor at Nicomedia, the conspirators deposed Anastasios’ successor, Theodosius III (r. 716-717 CE). Leo III (ca. The conquered territories were organised into two new themes of the empire: Thrakesion and Kibyrrhaiotai. Pope Leo was chased out of Rome fleeing for his life. Born: 750 AD Rome, Exarchate of Ravenna, Roman Empire Died: 12 June 816 Rome Predecessor: Adrian I Successor: Stephen IV Papacy began: 27 December 795 Papacy ended: 12 June 816. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Pope St. Leo III. It proved that the Church could make political decisions. What was significant about Pope Leo III's crowning of Charlemagne as emperor on Christmas Day, 800 CE? Pope Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816.. Leo announced his election to Charlemagne, sending him the keys of Saint Peter's tomb and the banner of Rome, requesting an envoy.Charlemagne in his reply stated that it was his function to defend the church and the popes' to pray for the realm and for victory of the army. Books Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne’s position by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor. To ensure his wishes were carried out, the emperor dismissed Germanos I, the Patriarch (bishop) of Constantinople who had objected to his decree and replaced him with Anastasios, a staunch iconoclast. Saint Leo III, (born, Rome—died June 12, 816, canonized 1673; feast day June 12), pope from 795 to 816.. Leo was a cardinal when elected to succeed Pope Adrian I on December 26, 795; he was consecrated the next day. Pope Leo III Biography. 16 Jan 2021. Leo, having proven his defensive skills, next went on the offensive to try and regain some of the huge territorial losses the empire had sustained in recent decades. After the people had seen four emperors in six years, Leo would finally provide the empire with some stability. Leo XIII, head of the Roman Catholic Church (1878–1903) who brought a new spirit to the papacy, manifested in more conciliatory positions toward civil governments, by care taken that the church not be opposed to scientific progress and by an awareness of the pastoral and social needs of the times. What did this indicate about the Catholic Church? Ancient History Encyclopedia. Pope Leo III is noted for: crowning Charlemagne Emperor and establishing the precedent that only the pope could confer the imperial crown. Byzantine Empire, 717 CEby Hoodinski (CC BY-SA). Charlemagne, advised by scholar Alcuin of York, travelled to Rome in November 800 and held a council on December 1. Source: en.wikipedia.org. The cooperation between the papacy and the Carolingian dynasty climaxed in 800, when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as 'Emperor of the Romans'. What was Pope Leo III known for? Leo’s reign hit an immediate crisis when his capital Constantinople was besieged by an Arab force led by the brilliant general Maslama. License. Pope Leo the Third was the pope who crowned Charlemagne as Emperor of the Romans on December 25, 800 in Rome.Pope Leo III was a common-born man, who grew up to become the Pope. An unmarried man who commits fornication shall be flogged with six lashes. Leo I, Leo II, and Leo IV. Constantine continued to vehemently attack the veneration of icons but went even further than his father, insisting only the True Cross was a suitable image to be seen within churches and actively persecuting iconophile Christians. So Pope Leo III started in Rome, where the Vatican (the home of the Pope) was. Unlike Adrian, who had tried to maintain independence in the growing estrangement between East and West by balancing the Byzantine emperor against Charlemagne, Leo … His parents were Aliguppius and Elizabeth. It was the first time that ordinary people could access and understand the laws according to which they were supposed to conduct themselves. Little more is known of his youth. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. The semi-nomadic Khazars had well-established ties with Constantinople, Justinian II having married the khan’s daughter, and Leo sensibly ensured the good-relations continued by having his son marry one of the present khan’s daughters. Pope Leo III (Latin: Leo; fl. Leo died not long afterwards in 816. Ancient History Encyclopedia. He is noted for insisting on the use of the original text of the Nicene Creed.While canonized in the Roman Catholic Church in 1673, he has never been formally glorified by any Orthodox patriarchate. The emperor is best remembered today for beginning the destruction of icons in the Christian church which his successors pursued with even more passion, leading to a widening of the gap between the western and eastern Church. He also initiated the controversial Iconoclastic movement. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Leo made his son Constantine co-emperor in 720 CE and put him on Byzantine coinage to spread the message that a dynasty had been founded. Leo was born in Rome. Born at Germanicia (Marʿash) in northern Syria (modern Maraş, Tur. Despite his humble background, the ambitious Leo would push himself to the very top. A person who has carnal knowledge of a nun shall, upon the footing that he is debauching the Church of God, have his nose slit [cut off], because he committed wicked adultery with her who belonged to the Church. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Charlemagne: King of the Franks and Lombards, The Origin and Decline of the Papal States, The Avignon Papacy - When the Popes Resided in France, B.A., History, University of Texas at Austin. It showed that the pope was ruling the Holy Roman Empire. It may be that, as God’s representative on earth, the Byzantine emperor merely wished to exercise his right as he saw it to dictate not only political policies but ecclesiastical ones too. "Leo III." The worldly Paul III was a notable patron of the arts and at the same time encouraged the beginning of the reform movement that was to affect deeply the Roman Catholic Pope St. Leo III. Pope Leo III (Latin: Leo; fl. He rescued the empire from disaster and began the containment of the Arabs' eastern advance. Yet his most significant theological achievement was not his negative suppression of heresy but his positive formulation of orthodoxy. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. It is an open letter, passed to all Catholic patriarchs, primates, archbishops and bishops, that addressed the condition of the working classes. When the Bulgar khan Tervel sent a relieving force to aid his ally of convenience Leo, Maslama's army, already weakened by an unusually harsh winter, famine, and disease, was forced to withdraw on 15 August 718 CE. Protected by Charlemagne from the supporters of his predecessor, Adrian I, Leo subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him emperor. He founded the Isaurian dynasty which ruled until 802 CE. More in-depth info about the book may be found by clicking on to the book's page at one of the online merchants. Theodosios was exiled to a monastery at Ephesus while Leo entered Constantinople in triumph as emperor on 25 March 717 CE. Web. Pope Paul III (Latin: Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549. Leo, born Konon, was a shepherd in Thrace whose parents had relocated there from Syria. He was an active builder and restorer of churches and public structures such as aqueducts and a… Why was Pope Leo III s crowning of Charlemagne significant? Byzantine Christian historians, all of whom, significantly, were in favour of icons, propose that the emperor was unduly influenced by Jews and Muslims, but modern historians discount this as unlikely. Leo was a Roman, the son of Atyuppius and Elizabeth. Cartwright, Mark. Answer to: Why is Pope Leo III important to history? In 799, after Pope Leo III was abused by Romans who tried to put out his eyes and tear out his tongue, he escaped and fled to Charlemagne at Paderborn. A more formal statement of intent was needed, and so, in 730 CE, Leo officially decreed that all religious images and relics must be destroyed. Leo’s reign also saw several conflicts with the Arab world beginning with the successful defence of Constantinople and ending in the reconquest of Asia Minor. Rerum novarum (from its incipit, with the direct translation of the Latin meaning "of revolutionary change"), or Rights and Duties of Capital and Labor, is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on 15 May 1891. ), as a He rescued the empire from disaster and began the containment of the Arabs' eastern advance. 680-741), called the Isaurian, was Byzantine emperor from 717 to 741. Leo is remembered more for his encyclical letter Rerum novarum(May 15, 1891) than for many other acts. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 04 December 2017 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 04 Dec 2017. Leo’s alliances with the Georgians and Khazars were proving very useful, especially the latter who, hailing from an area north of the Black Sea, could attack the rear of the Arab forces. The Papacy: Very little is known about Pope Leo III. Rather than keeping the papacy independent of secular authorities, Leo deliberately took steps to ally with Charlemagne and his growing empire. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. On April 25, 799, Pope Leo III was leading a procession honoring St. Mark in Rome, chanting prayers and responses with the crowd, a practice called the Greater Litanies. Leo III (ca. (d. 816) Important pope whose long reign (r. 795 816) witnessed a number of significant developments in papal policy and diplomatic relations. Popes During the... a Manual of Roman Law the Ecloga published by the following publications: Ancient History Foundation... Lost in the streets of Rome by supporters of his attempt to halt the drift of people. Laws according to which they were supposed to conduct themselves publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia is! Licensing terms an MA in political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE the laws according to they! 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