No unusual evidence was found, however, that Lamington was about to produce another eruption of the type seen on 21 January 1951. Small pieces of these distinctively dark PUB rocks could be seen in the light-coloured deposits and lava dome rocks produced by the Lamington eruption of 1951 (e.g. Figure 9.7. The group had started out informally as the ‘Bully Beef Club’ but it led to the creation of the Pangu Pati (Nelson 1982). These compilations were invaluable not only for the CSIRO land surveys themselves but also for later volcanological hazard assessments. A third notable point is the mapping of numerous ‘satellite’, ‘adventive’ or ‘parasitic’ volcanic features on the western side of the mountain, as shown on a separate and more detailed map (Figure 9.2). Collection of photographs and colour slides from the 1951 eruption of Mt Lamington, Papua New Guinea. Kururi’s name, then, can be added to the list of volcanoes in Papua known to have been historically active up to 1951—Victory, Goropu, Lamington and Kururi. Ophiolite-contaminated andesites, trachybasalts, and cognate inclusions of Mount Lamington, Papua New Guinea: anhydrite-amphibole-bearing lavas and the 1951 cumulodome. Schwimmer selected three villages for his study. The road turns abruptly northwards, avoiding a river ‘double crossing’ at that point, and splitting into different parts near plantation blocks at Sangara, one road swinging southwards past the old, now disused, wartime airstrip that had operated during the disaster relief phase in 1951. The numbers given for each sector are the maximum wind velocities given in knots (about 2 kilometres per hour) and the average wind velocity is given inside brackets. +61 2 6125 5111 Explosive activity may have changed during evolution of the volcano as the result of a decrease in the proportion of eruptions producing ash fall deposits, together with a complementary increase in those producing pyroclastic flows. Figure 9.9. The forested peak of the volcano had not been recognised as such until its devastating eruption in 1951 that caused about 3,000 deaths. A seismograph and two tiltmeters for earthquake and ground-tilt recording, respectively, were installed 14 kilometres from the summit of Mount Lamington by the RVO in December 1960 at the Martyrs’ Memorial School, now rebuilt at Agenahambo on the main Popondetta road (McKee 1976). Lamington's summit contains ragged peaks and a … The fine ash of the 1951 eruption was barely represented in Ruxton’s study, much of it having drifted onto forest canopies and ‘lost’ in the underlying leaf litter of the forest floor. Even the volcanologist Tony Taylor had departed after two years of fieldwork in the area. Zwartko. Lamington lies near the northern edge of Papua, New Guinea and had no known history of volcanic activity prior to January 1951, when an ash plume and … A notable difference however is that although some layering similar to the classic A, B, C stratigraphy is present in the proximal deposits of Lamington, the layers are not so clearly distinguished by grain size characteristics and lack the sharp contacts that are common in classic blast deposits. All four versions deal with Sumbiri and his wife Suja—these are Schwimmer’s spellings of the names—hunting on the mountain for several weeks. It is the omphalos kosmou [centre of the cosmos] of Orokaiva myth: the origin of death, warfare, fire—and generally of all those cultural elements established by the transforming deities—are traced to the Mountain, while the division of the people into distinct language groups is likewise a primordial event that occurred on the Mountain. in Mount Lamington and the mountain Orokaiva in some of the years following the independence of Papua New Guinea in 1975. First, a clear age differentiation is made on the main accompanying map (Figure 9.1) between the young Lamington volcano in the west and the larger, but older Hydrographers Range in the east, unlike in previously published, coloured, geological maps up to this time (Figures 2.3 and 3.5). The Australian National University, Canberra Volcanological Analysis and New Eruptions, 8. Does all of this mean that the mountain Orokaiva had no pre-1951 knowledge of what ‘volcanic eruptions’ were in a general sense and, perhaps, no specific word for them or for ‘volcano’? Schwimmer introduced his substantial report of 1969 with the following words: Mount Lamington has long had, to the Orokaiva people, a significance somewhat similar to that of Mount Olympos [sic] to the Ancient Greeks. Several crags formed on the angry mountain and the couple became isolated on one of them, from which they leapt into a ‘crater’ formed between the crags. Nationalist rather than separatist sentiments were being expressed at this time in the Northern District. There are differences, however, between the two volcanoes. Ingleby (1966) provided a description of the Lamington area as it was in 1966. Mount Lamington, Owen Stanley Range, New Guinea Ranges, Papua New Guinea Mountain weather forecast for 1680m. Waiko 2003). The district commissioner of the Northern District at this time of political change was David R.M. Volcanologist John Best continued running the volcanological observatory in Rabaul in Taylor’s absence, and was heavily involved with Taylor and new recruit Max A. Reynolds in assessing several eruptions at other volcanoes during 1953–57, none of which, however, included Lamington. This drawing accompanied a short version of the legend written in Orokaiva by Joel Oreba (1976, 5). It also has numerous plate boundaries defining the margins of two major plates—named Pacific and Australian—as well as at least two minor, less well-defined plates sandwiched between them (e.g. The university had been created as a postwar venture in 1946 and three professors in history, geography, economics and related subjects from RSPAS visited the Territory on a reconnaissance trip between 14 October and 10 November 1951 (Spate, Davidson and Firth 1952). Victory is much further from the Owen Stanley Range. The second question is answered affirmatively today by the Orokaiva and some speak bitterly about the failure of the colonial administration to evacuate people (Stead 2018). Notice, Smithsonian Terms of Four versions of the Sumbiripa-Kanekari legend were collected by Schwimmer from different communities who, however, were telling their stories 15 years after the 1951 eruption rather than before it. It might, however, be argued that before the disaster of 1951, the omphalos kosmou was located elsewhere and that it has since been ‘relocated’ to Mount Lamington. Mapping the location of earthquakes taking place in the Territory had not been easy because of a deficiency of seismographs in the wider region, but this changed in 1964 when the World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) was established by the US. Fundamental questions of causation needed to be explained. Orokaiva historian Maclaren Hiari also recorded that ‘Sumbiri’—without the suffix ‘pa’—is the name of a tribal warrior from the Angereufu clan of the Songe tribe (Hiari 2013). 2). Further, earthquakes may be felt, or heard, as roars in the vicinity of Mount Lamington that are of plate-tectonic rather than volcanic origin. Jim Sinclair, a kiap who would later become well known as an author and historian of Papua New Guinea, went to the Northern District at the end of 1952 just before Christmas:. Land use ‘units’ in the Lamington area. Astrophysical Observatory. Your browser is not supported by ANU web styles. #1 Mount Lamington Mountain Elevation: 1680 m Updated: 2019-05-17 Mount Lamington is an andesitic stratovolcano in the Oro Province of Papua New Guinea. The instrumented, yet now-quiet Mount Lamington resides on the SE peninsula of the main island of Papua New Guinea. These were so-called ‘Wadati-Benioff’ earthquake zones, named after the seismologists who first identified them. The cult appears to have been politically benign—simply a magico-religious means of acquiring the same European knowledge that yielded wealth not yet possessed by the Yega (Schwimmer 1977). Jim Sinclair, a kiap who would later become well known as an author and historian of Papua New Guinea, went to the Northern District at the end of 1952 just before Christmas: Popondetta was not an impressive station … the crude emergency accommodation hastily constructed [after the 1951 disaster] … to house the great influx of relief workers still stood. ([1964a] 2010a) is equivalent to about 22 kilometres from east to west and refers to the enlarged map shown in Figure 9.2. Mount Lamington began to erupt on the night of 18 January 1951. Mt Lamington (Papua New Guinea) volcano: uncertain report about smoke and ash emission According to, Mt Lamington volcano in New Guinea is showing some signs of becoming active. A general conclusion from Schwimmer’s research was that the Orokaiva explanations, whether based on the anger of Sumbiripa, the Christian God or even the government, were consistent with a basic world view of the fundamental importance of exchange and reciprocity arrangements in all aspects of life (see also Schwimmer 1973). Improved earthquake mapping from numerous stations worldwide underpinned development of the revolutionary theory of plate tectonics that emerged in 1967–68 and whose impact became clearer during the early 1970s. The world and almost everything in it was not nearly so well documented in the 1950s as it is today and back in January 1951 nobody even suspected that Papua New Guinea’s Mount Lamington was a volcano, much less one that was about to erupt. The volcano rises to 1680 meters above the … The Yega explanation may have resided somewhere within a cargo cult that was prevalent in 1951. Did some mountain Orokaiva see and hear the Victory eruption and pass the story on to descendants? Deeper structures, such as any seismically inactive subducted slabs, could not be determined by the survey. But erupt it did, to fearful effect. Mount Lamington, in Papua, began to erupt on the night of 18th January, 1951. Therefore, collapses of the volcano may have taken place preferentially in the same direction, although debris-avalanche deposits had not been recognised. The word ‘smoke’ in this context could easily be equated with actual eruptive activity. Villagers in the sketch on the right by Louise Bass are dropping food into the hole for the trapped Sumbiripa. Revenge aimed against the Europeans and the tyranny of the hangings does not seem to have been an anti-colonial expression of the cult, although such a justification was warranted. of Papua New Guinea, New Britain, and the Solomon Islands. Its chief minister was Michael Somare, leader of the clearly nationalistic Pangu Pati. The Baigona or Snake cargo cult of 1912 began at the summit of Victory volcano and news of the cult was known to have spread throughout much of Orokaiva country. The road continues eastwards through Soroputa to a larger cluster of buildings at Agenahambo, which includes St Michaels Mission and Martyrs School, and then on to Koipa and Hohorita School near the western side of Ambogo River. The Yega said that the anger of the mountain was being directed at the Europeans as payback for the hangings of the Orokaiva at Higaturu in 1943. It involved conducting integrated land resource surveys rapidly, and it adopted a multidisciplinary approach aimed at assessing land use potential for agricultural and other developmental purposes by using the skills of a range of scientists—mainly geomorphologists, pedologists, plant ecologists, botanists, foresters and climatologists (Christian 1958; Christian and Stewart 1964; Blake and Paijmans 1973; Keig et al. The deposit and the tree blow-down features demonstrate many similarities with those of blast-generated PDCs of Bezymianny in 1956 and Mount St. Helens in 1980. Resettlement, Myths and Memorialisation, 10. Further, Ruxton did not recognise ashes from Victory in the ash-cover sequence he studied south-east of Mount Lamington, although identifying them would have been difficult. The first multiracial House of Assembly, a first parliament of elected members, met in 1964 (Downs 1980). Agreement NNX16AC86A, Is ADS down? Such a view is not all that dissimilar to Newton’s Third Law of Motion: that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. We found that the climactic phase of the eruption was triggered by a relatively small gravitational collapse of the old intracrater lava dome (debris avalanche V=0.02-0.04 cub. The scientists concluded that the ash could indeed be mixed satisfactorily with Portland cement in the production of concrete, perhaps for local use. Both Sivepe and Inonda had been studied previously by land use researchers from the NGRU. Both of these statements were true as far as the people living on the northern ˛ank of Mount Lamington in 1951 were concerned. Before it erupted in 1951, when Upoto was a boy, the people living on the mountain did not realize it was a volcano. Downs 1980; Meek 1982; Nelson 1982; Denoon 2005). This was the dominant theme during the anthropological investigations undertaken in 1951 by Cyril Belshaw and Felix Keesing, neither of whom mention Sumbiripa by name in their separate reports. Only the extreme southern tip of the Lamington cone itself is seen on this sheet area, but volcanic ashes from the volcano are found considerable distances south-east of the mountain. The surge produced spectacular tree blow-down in the devastated area. + 1 letter. [1964b] 2010b). Further, by the mid-1960s, ‘Sumbiripa’ was the name being given locally to the mountain itself, in place of ‘Lamington’ (e.g. The BMR established a geophysical observatory in Port Moresby in 1957 as part of a broad network of earthquake and geomagnetic recording stations covering the Australian region (e.g. Eruption of Mt Lamington, Papua New Guinea, 1951 [picture] / Albert Speer Call Number PIC/9275/1-62 LOC Album 1085 A Created/Published 1951 or 1952 Extent 1 album (62 photographs) : b&w ; 23.5 x 34 cm. Late that night on 18th January, smoke lava began to ooze from the peak, and then three days later, there was… UPNG also fostered the intellectual development of post-Independence leaders. (Sinclair 1981, 100). Some of the European bodies had never been found and the Anglican mission had buried its own European dead, so who was actually buried in the cemetery? We present the results of a detailed reinvestigation of deposits of the famous 1951 eruption of Mount Lamington which was originally studied by T. Taylor (1958). Vegetation is now extensive on the outer flanks of the volcano, but less so on the lava dome and amphitheatre walls. Mount Lamington is an andesitic stratovolcano in the Oro Province of Papua New Guinea. A third explanation listed by Schwimmer is the now familiar one: that the wrath of the Christian but Jehovah-like God, rather than the anger of Sumbiripa, had caused the disaster because of transgressions by the Orokaiva. Schwimmer 1969, 1977). 9. The January 21, 1951 Blast of Mount Lamington in Papua New Guinea: Sequence of Events and Characteristics of the Deposits - NASA/ADS We present the results of a detailed reinvestigation of deposits of the famous 1951 eruption of Mount Lamington which was originally studied by … The length of each sector is proportional to the time that winds blow in the plotted direction during this period. Pre-eruption mythology does seem to have evolved to something different and more substantial after the 1951 eruption. These facts appear clearly from the cycle of myths, centred on the Mountain, collected by me in the vernacular in 1966–1967. The accompanying man and woman became separated on different peaks where they died of loneliness and despair. How were the remains identified? He was sympathetic with the nationalistic views of the Pangu Pati but became a member of Julius Chan’s People’s Progress Party. Lamington was no longer in eruptive mode in the early 1970s, but other volcanoes in the Territory certainly were. Compared with the old Higaturu, Popondetta was not nearly as attractive and inspiring a location (e.g. Johnson and Molnar 1972). Further, staff of the Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries were reported as having been withdrawn from the Northern District ‘once the need for producing food for relief measure had passed … Interest waned and was reported to be “completely dead” in 1953’ (Waddell and Krinks 1968, 16). [1967] 2010; Ruxton and McDougall 1967). Other research personnel arrived in Port Moresby from Australia in the early 1960s. 8404 VOLCANOLOGY / Volcanoclastic deposits; 8414 VOLCANOLOGY / Eruption mechanisms and flow emplacement. It lies roughly across that peninsula from the capital city of Port Moresby and 40 km inland from the Solomon Sea. All of the ashes were of the air-fall type and none were recognised as having been deposited by pyroclastic flows. Plant ecologist B.W. One patch is actually at the coast, near Buna. Detailed 6 day mountain weather forecast for climbers and mountaineers. Lamington's summit contains ragged peaks and a … The map’s area includes both Victory and Goropu, or Waiowa, volcanoes. Such a thickness is an attraction to any geologist interested in reconstructing the life history of a volcano, and CSIRO geologist Bryan P. Ruxton took up the challenge, reporting widely on his findings (Ruxton 1966a, 1966b, 1988, 1999; Ruxton et al. In so doing, Schwimmer (1977, 319) concluded that the mission’s critics were ‘pursuing obscurantist and reprehensible power politics’. Independence Day was celebrated on 16 September 1975. Mount Lamington, therefore, was not conforming to the subduction zone model, meaning that generalisations about the behaviour of explosive volcanoes at subduction zones elsewhere could not necessarily be transferred to Lamington. Note how many of these features are sited within a broad band running east-north-eastwards up the western flank of the volcano and encompassing the summit area, as shown by the two red dashed lines. Plate boundaries in Papua New Guinea. The ashes of Mount Lamington were just one of the subjects of volcanological interest to Bryan Ruxton during the mapping of the Safia–Pongani area. The vigorous Mataungan Association, for example, was created in the Rabaul area in 1969, its political aspirations publicised when, in 1971, the European district commissioner, Jack Emmanuel, was murdered during what may have been a quite local misunderstanding and altercation. Vienna, Tuesday: In Papua New Guinea, Newman Ewada is trying to establish the identities of those Europeans (non-Papua New Guineans) who were killed in the Mount Lamington eruption of 1953. It also demonstrated how volcanic ash, if correctly identified as originating from Mount Lamington, could be deposited well to the west of the volcano from the high-level east to west winds even during the ‘north-west’ season of low-level winds (Figure 9.3). The anger had been caused by loud noises—by disrespectful acts, such as grenades being thrown near the crater during the war and, after the war, Orokaiva, and especially the Sangara people, hunting on the mountain with newly acquired guns, thereby depleting the ready availability of meat. Where is the magma stored, if it is ‘stored’ at all, and for how long before a major explosive eruption takes place? Explosive, andesitic volcanoes such as Mont Pelée in the Caribbean, Mount Fuji in Japan or Rhuapehu in New Zealand were shown to be near zones where two plates converge and where one of the plates is ‘subducted’ or underthrust beneath the other. Mount Lamington is an andesitic stratovolcano in the Oro Province of Papua New Guinea.… In the late 1960s, its summit area was dominated by a small crater complex and three lava domes, together with some thermal activity. The sketch of peaks used on the title pages of each of the four parts of this book is based on the drawing shown here. ‘Thick fresh looking ash deposits’ were found in river valleys to the north-west and south-east, possibly corresponding to the ‘burning rivers’ noted by local people at the time of the late nineteenth-century explosive eruption (Smith 1969, 11). The Buna–Kokoda study was the first of 15 land resource surveys conducted by CSIRO in the Territory up to 1973. 2019; Bellamy 2019). An oblique aerial colour photograph of the dome was taken in 1962 by a National Geographic magazine photographer (Scofield 1962). The list is by no means complete, or even comprehensive, but it may serve as a starting point for any subsequent history, similar to this one, that may be written following the next volcanic eruption at Mount Lamington. The ash cover 32 kilometres south-east from the Lamington crater is as much as 12 metres thick on the Safia–Pongani sheet (Ruxton 1966a). First, the ash cover was not well exposed because of the extensive tropical vegetation. Figure 9.4. km; L=8.5 km; H/L=0.14). Victory is a 1,925-metre-high, somewhat asymmetric, volcanic cone (Figure 9.5). A fourth aspect of the CSIRO study of Mount Lamington is the determination of the times and rates at which different plant species recovered in the disaster area. + 1 letter. Aerial photographs taken one month after eruption show that the PDC was strongly channelized even by small (tens meters) topographic features; the front of the moving PDC was frequently split into multiple small tongues which were variously deflected by topography. The effects of the eruptions at Goropu in 1943–44 also must have been known quite widely by people in the Lamington area—and not just by Reverend Dennis Taylor and the concerned young Tufi cook at Sangara Plantation. Important anthropological fieldwork of disaster management significance was undertaken among the mountain Orokaiva during the 1960s by Dutch-born Erik Schwimmer, an anthropologist based at the University of Oregon in the US. This survey took place in 1954 but, again, the published report did not appear until 1964. The aim was to explore potential areas of research that might be of interest to RSPAS. New geoscientific staff from Australia began work at the Rabaul Volcanological Observatory (RVO) during the early 1960s. He had begun his service as the district commissioner in Popondetta in 1968 and had attended the opening of the Mount Lamington Memorial Cemetery in the town in 1952 (Marsh 2005–08). Lead-Up to Independence. Mount Lamington is located in the eastern part of the island of New Guinea on the Papuan Peninsula (Fig. They were true, … The main road along the northern side of the mountain eastwards to Popondetta has a string of settlements, including two villages at Awala, together with nearby Saiho where the hospital had long since been closed. Taylor’s unexpected death in 1972 represented the end of a pioneering, postwar period for volcanologists working in the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. Mount Lamington is an andesitic stratovolcano in the Oro Province of Papua New Guinea. The western slopes of Mount Victory had been referred to by Captain Moresby in 1874 as ‘open grassy and wooded slopes, which have all the appearance of English parkland’ (Moresby 1876, 276). Lamington is one of 4 major andesite volcanoes (the others being Mount Victory, Mount Trafalgar and Hydrographers Range) located on a NE-dipping 60 million years old ophiolite (a fragment of ancient oceanic crust), known as the Papuan Ultramafic Belt (PUB). The eruption of Mt Lamington on Sunday 21 January 1951 was the greatest natural disaster on Australian-administered territory of Papua New Guinea. Several conclusions of volcanological and disaster management significance to the Lamington story can be highlighted from the final CSIRO report and maps for the Buna–Kokoda area. The southern edge of the Lamington volcano is outside the southern limit of the Buna–Kokoda sheet area (see Ruxton et al. The speculation by Schwimmer that ‘the omphalos kosmou was located elsewhere and had since been “relocated” to Mount Lamington’ is a tantalising one. The one on the left is by Maine Winny (Johnston 1995, 12). Ruxton was aware of the limitations of his published conclusions. Marsh had to manage the situation as diplomatically as he could, not only on behalf of the administration, but also of the Australian Government, which was largely in favour of the resolute trend towards self-government and independence, more so after Gough Whitlam, leader of the Australian Labor Party, became prime minister in 1972. We present results of a field reinvestigation of the 1951 PDC deposit combined with an analysis of the available photographs and … The eruption destroyed the northern half of the mountain and generated a massive pyroclastic surge, which killed more than 3500 people and destroyed dozens of villages. A large Anglican mission complex was established after the eruption near Sivepe at Sasembata that included a school, church and hospital (see also Kettle 1979). The whole surface of the Earth is covered by tectonic ‘plates’—some large, others small—that move relative to one another along linear, earthquake-defined boundaries. The dominant explanation for the 1951 eruption found by Schwimmer among the mountain Orokaiva was, not surprisingly, the anger of the mountain or of the mountain spirit Sumbiripa (Schwimmer 1969, 1977). The pyroclastic flows and subsequent eruptions of … The precise age of the eruptions is not known but the activity may have been between the two world wars, or possibly even roughly synchronous with the eruptive activity at Goropu volcano in 1943–44 (Ruxton 2007).