hellenistic period greece

It has been noted by Herodotus that after the establishment of the Athenian democracy: ...the Athenians found themselves suddenly a great power. 5.5 Hellenistic Period (323 – 30 BCE) • Begins after the death of Alexander the Great (323 BCE); lasts through the defeat of Cleopatra and Mark Anthony by the Romans at the Battle of Actium (30 BCE) • Relate the influence on Greek architecture as a result of the expansion of the Greek world. Various parts of Thrace were under Macedonian rule under Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great, Lysimachus, Ptolemy II, and Philip V but were also often ruled by their own kings. This multeity was born out of the expansion of Alexander the Great’s empire, though its historical barriers aren’t clearly defined. Lewis, D. M., John Boardman, and Simon Hornblower. Access the answers to hundreds of Hellenistic period questions that are explained in a way that's easy for you to understand. Though the Nabateans originally worshipped their traditional gods in symbolic form such as stone blocks or pillars, during the Hellenistic period they began to identify their gods with Greek gods and depict them in figurative forms influenced by Greek sculpture. Some coins describe the Armenian kings as "Philhellenes". Introduction. [135] Another astronomer, Aristarchos of Samos, developed a heliocentric system. According to Strabo, the Greco-Bactrians seem to have had contacts with China through the silk road trade routes (Strabo, XI.11.1). Finally, between 146 and 30 B.C. The perceived weakness of Macedonia in the aftermath of these conflicts encouraged Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire to invade mainland Greece, yet his defeat by the Romans at Thermopylae in 191 BC and Magnesia in 190 BC secured Rome's position as the leading military power in the region. After the fall of the Seleucid dynasty, the Parthians fought frequently against neighbouring Rome in the Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – AD 217). The city of Emporion (modern Empúries), originally founded by Archaic-period settlers from Phocaea and Massalia in the 6th century BC near the village of Sant Martí d'Empúries (located on an offshore island that forms part of L'Escala, Catalonia, Spain),[46] was reestablished in the 5th century BC with a new city (neapolis) on the Iberian mainland. Hellenistic art saw a turn from the idealistic, perfected, calm and composed figures of classical Greek art to a style dominated by realism and the depiction of emotion (pathos) and character (ethos). Other city states formed federated states in self-defense, such as the Aetolian League (est. This period also marks the beginning of the obfuscation of Greco-Bactrian history. Antigonus II, a student of Zeno of Citium, spent most of his rule defending Macedon against Epirus and cementing Macedonian power in Greece, first against the Athenians in the Chremonidean War, and then against the Achaean League of Aratus of Sicyon. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World, 2007. p. 35. The Hellenic period saw the rising and falling of the polis while Hellenistic period was plagued by warfare among the remaining dynasties. With the support of royal stipends, Alexandrian scholars collected, translated, copied, classified, and critiqued every book they could find. Artists such as Peiraikos chose mundane and lower class subjects for his paintings. The kingdoms became so independent from Seleucid control that Antiochus III the Great waged war on them during his reign and replaced their rulers. Nicomedes also invited the Celtic Galatians into Anatolia as mercenaries, and they later turned on his son Prusias I, who defeated them in battle. The Ptolemies used the smaller African elephant. The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus, P. 17. While it may have been a deliberate attempt to spread Greek culture (or as Arrian says, "to civilise the natives"), it is more likely that it was a series of pragmatic measures designed to aid in the rule of his enormous empire. Hellenistic warfare was a continuation of the military developments of Iphicrates and Philip II of Macedon, particularly his use of the Macedonian Phalanx, a dense formation of pikemen, in conjunction with heavy companion cavalry. The Nabateans resisted the attacks of Antigonus and were allies of the Hasmoneans in their struggle against the Seleucids, but later fought against Herod the Great. Hellenistic Athens also saw the rise of New Comedy and the Hellenistic schools of philosophy such as Stoicism and Epicureanism. Soon afterwards the Greco-Bactrian kingdom seems to have expanded, possibly taking advantage of the defeat of the Parthian king Arsaces II by Antiochus. After the defeat of Anthony and his lover, the last Ptolemaic monarch, Cleopatra VII, at the Battle of Actium, Augustus invaded Egypt and took it as his own personal fiefdom. Southern Greece was now thoroughly brought into the Roman sphere of influence, though it retained nominal autonomy. However, William Woodthorpe Tarn, between World War I and World War II and the heyday of the League of Nations, focused on the issues of racial and cultural confrontation and the nature of colonial rule. 323 BC-31BC), was comprised of gold. [23] Lysimachus, who had seized Macedon and Thessaly for himself, was forced into war when Seleucus invaded his territories in Asia Minor and was defeated and killed in 281 BC at the Battle of Corupedium, near Sardis. This famous writing will have an impact on mathematics for years to come. During the reign of Mithridates II, Pontus was allied with the Seleucids through dynastic marriages. In 191 BC, the Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio routed him at Thermopylae and obliged him to withdraw to Asia. During the following years Rome was drawn deeper into Greek politics, since the defeated party in any dispute appealed to Rome for help. All the cities except Rhodes were enrolled in a new League which Rome ultimately controlled, and democracies were replaced by aristocratic regimes allied to Rome. Most of the Greek cities rallied to the Achaeans' side, even slaves were freed to fight for Greek independence. After Cassander's death in 298 BC, however, Demetrius seized the Macedonian throne and gained control of most of Greece. Cynics such as Diogenes of Sinope rejected all material possessions and social conventions (nomos) as unnatural and useless. The library of Alexandria included a zoo for research and Hellenistic zoologists include Archelaos, Leonidas of Byzantion, Apollodoros of Alexandria and Bion of Soloi. University of California Press. The Hellenistic period in both history and in art refers to the era of the conquests of Alexander the Great and the subsequent spreading of Greek culture throughout the major cities and nations of Southern Europe, the Mediterranean, and Near East. During the course of this war Roman troops moved into Asia for the first time, where they defeated Antiochus again at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC). Philip V, who came to power when Doson died in 221 BC, was the last Macedonian ruler with both the talent and the opportunity to unite Greece and preserve its independence against the "cloud rising in the west": the ever-increasing power of Rome. Diodotus II, son of Diodotus, was overthrown in about 230 BC by Euthydemus, possibly the satrap of Sogdiana, who then started his own dynasty. [66] He then began expanding his influence into Pergamene territory in Asia and crossed into Europe, fortifying Lysimachia on the Hellespont, but his expansion into Anatolia and Greece was abruptly halted after a decisive defeat at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC). The Hellenic World of ancient Greece was the Golden Age of Greece and is also known as the ‘Classic Greek period’, this period produced the noblest of philosophers, artists, statesmen, and writers. With a skilled navy to protect its trade fleets from pirates and an ideal strategic position covering the routes from the east into the Aegean, Rhodes prospered during the Hellenistic period. The importance of Athens gradually declined, and cultural centers rose at Pergamum, Rhodes, and Alexandria. Ptolemy was killed when Macedon was invaded by Gauls in 279 BC—his head stuck on a spear—and the country fell into anarchy. Rather, some Greeks came to Alexandria to learn and share knowledge. The Hellenistic Age marks the transformation of Greek society from the localized and introverted city-states to an open, cosmopolitan, and at times exuberant culture that permeated the entire eastern Mediterranean, and Southwest Asia. His death saw another revolt of the city-states of the Achaean League, whose dominant figure was Aratus of Sicyon. Lysimachus was in turn defeated and killed in 280 BC. After his death, the huge territories Alexander had conquered became subject to a strong Greek influence (Hellenization) for the next two or three centuries, until the rise of Rome in the west, and of Parthia in the east. In this political climate, Hellenistic philosophers went in search of goals such as ataraxia (un-disturbedness), autarky (self-sufficiency), and apatheia (freedom from suffering), which would allow them to wrest well-being or eudaimonia out of the most difficult turns of fortune. [45] A staunch ally of Rome, Massalia retained its independence until it sided with Pompey in 49 BC and was then taken by Caesar's forces. For some purposes the period is extended for a further three and a half centuries, to the move by Constantine the Great of his capital to Constantinople (Byzantium) in 330 ce. Hellenistic refers to Greek language and culture. Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus, Pausanias, Pliny, and the Byzantine encyclopedia the Suda. The Peace of Apamaea (188 BC) left Rome in a dominant position throughout Greece. [99] Tylos even became the site of Greek athletic contests.[100]. Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, and David Tandy, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Greece and the International Monetary Fund, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hellenistic_Greece&oldid=974091181, Articles lacking in-text citations from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The end of Antigonid Macedon came when Philip V's son, Perseus, was defeated and captured by the Romans in the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC). In the aftermath, Philip formed the League of Corinth, effectively bringing the majority of Greece under his direct sway. This was the first time a European force had invaded the region. [22] He was defeated in 288 BC when Lysimachus of Thrace and Pyrrhus of Epirus invaded Macedon on two fronts, and quickly carved up the kingdom for themselves. The most important source after Polybius is Diodorus Siculus who wrote his Bibliotheca historica between 60 and 30 BC and reproduced some important earlier sources such as Hieronymus, but his account of the Hellenistic period breaks off after the battle of Ipsus (301 BC). The period of Hellenistic influence, when taken as a whole, constitutes one of the most creative periods in the history of religions. Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise. [41] Agathocles then invaded Italy (c. 300 BC) in defense of Tarentum against the Bruttians and Romans, but was unsuccessful. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele and a syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism in Bactria and Northwest India. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. The Galatians were well respected as warriors and were widely used as mercenaries in the armies of the successor states. Modern interpretations see this period as a civil war between Hellenized and orthodox forms of Judaism. The Hellenistic World is an umbrella term, which refers to the geographic reach of the Greek Empire, along with the roughly 300-year period it covered. Apollodotus I was succeeded by or ruled alongside Antimachus II, likely the son of the Bactrian king Antimachus I. Bugh, Glenn R. (editor). In 198 BC, during the Second Macedonian War Philip was decisively defeated at Cynoscephalae by the Roman proconsul Titus Quinctius Flamininus and Macedon lost all its territories in Greece proper. The Hellenistic Period is a cultural period. [144] Greek temples built during the Hellenistic period were generally larger than classical ones, such as the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the temple of Artemis at Sardis, and the temple of Apollo at Didyma (rebuilt by Seleucus in 300 BC). Though some of these regions were not ruled by Greeks or even Greek speaking elites, certain Hellenistic influences can be seen in the historical record and material culture of these regions. Finally, in 27 BC, Augustus directly annexed Greece to the new Roman Empire as the province of Achaea. During the Hellenistic period, Judea became a frontier region between the Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Egypt and therefore was often the frontline of the Syrian wars, changing hands several times during these conflicts. [54] External possessions such as Cyprus and Cyrene were run by strategoi, military commanders appointed by the crown. The ancient Georgian kingdoms had trade relations with the Greek city-states on the Black Sea coast such as Poti and Sukhumi. It later became a Roman client state. The Ptolemaic ruler cult portrayed the Ptolemies as gods, and temples to the Ptolemies were erected throughout the kingdom. He also expanded the kingdom further east into Punjab, though these conquests were rather ephemeral. Palestine Goes Greek. Bedal, Leigh-Ann; The Petra Pool-complex: A Hellenistic Paradeisos in the Nabataean Capital, pg 178. Mithridates also depicted himself with the anastole hairstyle of Alexander and used the symbolism of Herakles, from whom the Macedonian kings claimed descent. Influenced by Philinus of Cos (fl. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, the only few surviving representative texts being those of Menander (born 342/341 BC). Pontic culture was a mix of Greek and Iranian elements; the most hellenized parts of the kingdom were on the coast, populated by Greek colonies such as Trapezus and Sinope, the latter of which became the capital of the kingdom. The wars lasted until 275 BC, witnessing the fall of both the Argead and Antipatrid dynasties of Macedonia in favor of the Antigonid dynasty. Within roughly two decades after conquering Macedonia in 168 BC and Epirus in 167 BC, the Romans would eventually control the whole of Greece. However, this brought Antiochus into conflict with Rhodes and Pergamum, two important Roman allies, and began a 'cold war' between Rome and Antiochus (not helped by the presence of Hannibal at the Seleucid court). During the reign of Mithridates I of Parthia, Arsacid control expanded to include Herat (in 167 BC), Babylonia (in 144 BC), Media (in 141 BC), Persia (in 139 BC), and large parts of Syria (in the 110s BC). By the turn of the century, the Attalids in Pergamon became patrons and protectors of Athens as the Ptolemaic empire weakened. When Alexander the Great died (10 June 323 BC), he left behind a huge empire which was composed of many essentially autonomous territories called satraps. The rest of the army was made up of native troops. In 305 BC, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter" (saviour) for his role in helping the Rhodians during the siege of Rhodes. The degree of influence that Greek culture had throughout the Hellenistic kingdoms was therefore highly localized and based mostly on a few great cities like Alexandria and Antioch. This inevitably weakened the Greek position, and territory seems to have been lost progressively. During the Hellenistic period, many different schools of thought developed, and these schools of Hellenistic philosophy had a significant influence on the Greek and Roman ruling elite. It can be argued that some of the changes across the Macedonian Empire after Alexander's conquests and during the rule of the Diadochi would have occurred without the influence of Greek rule. [52] Promotion of immigration from Greece was important in the establishment of this system. Antiochus III recaptured Arsacid controlled territory in 209 BC from Arsaces II. Seleucus' war elephants proved decisive, Antigonus was killed, and Demetrius fled back to Greece to attempt to preserve the remnants of his rule there by recapturing a rebellious Athens. This period continued the wealth of Greece’s Golden Age. The use of Greek-style portraits and Greek language continued under the Roman, Parthian, and Kushan empires, even as the use of Greek was in decline. The Parthians used Greek as well as their own Parthian language (though lesser than Greek) as languages of administration and also used Greek drachmas as coinage. [16], Period of ancient Greek and Mediterranean history, "Greek world" redirects here. He then invaded Phoenicia, laid siege to Tyre, stormed Gaza and began building a fleet. The first of the Diadochi wars broke out when Perdiccas planned to marry Alexander's sister Cleopatra and began to question Antigonus I Monophthalmus' leadership in Asia Minor. John Boardman, "The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity", Princeton University Press, 1993, p.130: "The Indian king's grandson, Asoka, was a convert to Buddhism. The Hellenistic period saw the Greek alphabet spread into southern Gaul from Massalia (3rd and 2nd centuries BC) and according to Strabo, Massalia was also a center of education, where Celts went to learn Greek. THE CAMBRIDGE ANCIENT HISTORY, SECOND EDITION, VOLUME VII, PART I: The Hellenistic World, p. 1. Most of the Greek cities rallied to the Achaeans' side, even slaves were freed to fight for Greek independence. to 146 B.C. The dominant form of government in the Hellenistic Age was the despotism of kings who represented themselves as at least semi-divine. The Macedonian throne then passed to Demetrius's son Antigonus II, who also defeated an invasion of the Greek lands by the Gauls, who at this time were living in the Balkans. [109] Seleucia replaced Babylon as the metropolis of the lower Tigris. The Achaeans refused and, feeling that they might as well die fighting, declared war on Rome. After Cassander's death in c. 298 BC, however, Demetrius, who still maintained a sizable loyal army and fleet, invaded Macedon, seized the Macedonian throne (294 BC) and conquered Thessaly and most of central Greece (293–291 BC). Macedon was located at the periphery of the Greek world, and although its royal family claimed Greek descent, the Macedonians themselves were looked down upon as semi-barbaric by the rest of the Greeks. After the death of Lysimachus, one of his officers, Philetaerus, took control of the city of Pergamum in 282 BC along with Lysimachus' war chest of 9,000 talents and declared himself loyal to Seleucus I while remaining de facto independent. Hellenistic Greece's definitive end was with the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, when the future emperor Augustus defeated Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony Though this comparison is now seen as unfair and meaningless, it has been noted that even commentators of the time saw the end of a cultural era which could not be matched again. Nabatean material culture does not show any Greek influence until the reign of Aretas III Philhellene in the 1st century BC. How many Hellenistic Greek trade items can you find in your house? These cities retained traditional Greek city state institutions such as assemblies, councils and elected magistrates, but this was a facade for they were always controlled by the royal Seleucid officials. [86] In about 155 (or 165) BC he seems to have been succeeded by the most successful of the Indo-Greek kings, Menander I. Menander converted to Buddhism, and seems to have been a great patron of the religion; he is remembered in some Buddhist texts as 'Milinda'. Callimachus was extremely influential in his time and also for the development of Augustan poetry. Getae in Wallachia and Moldavia coined Getic tetradrachms, Getic imitations of Macedonian coinage.[96]. The Hellenistic period began in 323 BCE, with the death of Alexander the Great. Between 301 and 219 BC the Ptolemies ruled Judea in relative peace, and Jews often found themselves working in the Ptolemaic administration and army, which led to the rise of a Hellenized Jewish elite class (e.g. While gold was used before this period, the arrival of gold into larger quantities into the circulation of the Hellenistic Period goods marked part of the significance of Alexander the Great’s conquering of the Persian Empire. The Sophists proclaimed the centrality of humanity and agnosticism; the belief in Euhemerism (the view that the gods were simply ancient kings and heroes), became popular. Around 70 BC, the western regions of Arachosia and Paropamisadae were lost to tribal invasions, presumably by those tribes responsible for the end of the Bactrian kingdom. The Ancient Greek civilization begins its decline and the Ancient Romans start to gain power. Parthia was a north-eastern Iranian satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire which later passed on to Alexander's empire. Settlements such as Ai-Khanoum, on trade routes, allowed Greek culture to mix and spread. During the Hellenistic period Greek cultural influence and power reached the peak of its geographical expansion, being dominant in the Mediterranean world and most of West and Central Asia, even in parts of the Indian subcontinent, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science. He had been a student of Callimachus and later became chief librarian (prostates) of the library of Alexandria. Under his auspices the Peace of Naupactus (217 BC) brought the latest war between Macedon and the Greek leagues (the Social War of 220–217 BC) to an end, and at this time he controlled all of Greece except Athens, Rhodes and Pergamum. Once the Second Punic War had been resolved, and the Romans had begun to regather their strength, they looked to re-assert their influence in the Balkans, and to curb the expansion of Philip. The "Brihat-Samhita" of the mathematician Varahamihira says: "The Greeks, though impure, must be honored since they were trained in sciences and therein, excelled others...".[91]. Perseus was captured and taken to Rome, the Macedonian kingdom was broken up into four smaller states, and all the Greek cities who aided her, even rhetorically, were punished. Many 19th-century scholars contended that the Hellenistic period represented a cultural decline from the brilliance of classical Greece. In 146 BC, the Greek peninsula, though not the islands, became a Roman protectorate. The Greeks valued their local independence too much to consider actual unification, but they made several attempts to form federations through which they could hope to reassert their independence. The Hellenistic period When Alexander the Great conquered the Asiatic kingdoms as far east as the Indus River, the Greek world was extended immensely. Ptolemaic administration was, like the ancient Egyptian bureaucracy, highly centralized and focused on squeezing as much revenue out of the population as possible though tariffs, excise duties, fines, taxes and so forth. The period of Hellenistic influence, when taken as a whole, constitutes one of the most creative periods in the history of religions. Sparta also remained independent, but generally refused to join any league. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe, or Berenice. [115] In the Ptolemaic kingdom, we find some Egyptianized Greeks by the 2nd century onwards. The dominant ideals of Hellenistic art were those of sensuality and passion.[143]. This period also saw the rise of a Hellenistic Judaism, which first developed in the Jewish diaspora of Alexandria and Antioch, and then spread to Judea. [109] Alexandria had the monumental museum (a research center) and Library of Alexandria which was estimated to have had 700,000 volumes. While the Classical Period was a time of cultural growth, the Hellenistic Period saw that decline. It led to a steady emigration, particularly of the young and ambitious, to the new Greek empires in the east. The motif of deceptively realistic naturalism in art (aletheia) is reflected in stories such as that of the painter Zeuxis, who was said to have painted grapes that seemed so real that birds came and pecked at them. Pliny the Elder, after having described the sculpture of the classical period, says: Cessavit deinde ars ("then art disappeared"). This approach was bitterly resented by the Macedonians and discarded by most of the Diadochi after Alexander's death. [2] The Greek-language word Hellas (Ἑλλάς, Ellás) was originally the widely recognized name of Greece, from which the word Hellenistic was derived.[3]. The Cyrenaics and Epicureans embraced hedonism, arguing that pleasure was the only true good. In states such as the Achaean league, this also involved the admission of other ethnic groups into the federation with equal rights, in this case, non-Achaeans. [59][61] These cities included newly founded colonies such as Antioch, the other cities of the Syrian tetrapolis, Seleucia (north of Babylon) and Dura-Europos on the Euphrates. [17] The generals who had supported Perdiccas were rewarded in the partition of Babylon by becoming satraps of the various parts of the empire, but Perdiccas' position was shaky, because, as Arrian writes, "everyone was suspicious of him, and he of them".[18]. Theaters have also been found: for example, in Ai-Khanoum on the edge of Bactria, the theater has 35 rows – larger than the theater in Babylon. Hellenistic religion, any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of eastern Mediterranean peoples from 300 bc to ad 300.. 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